The Circular Economy has three core principles:


  • Waste-as-a-Resource

Materials can be recovered out of the waste stream for reprocessing or remanufacturing into new products

  • Circular Business Models

Business that specifically operate under circular systems, such as Product-as-a-Service, where consumer products are leased and returned at end-of-life or in exchange for a new product. The business retains ownership of the product and can recycle, remanufacture or refurbish accordingly.

  • Circular Design

Products are designed for refurbishment or repairability. Circular Design also considers if waste can be designed out of consumer products.

Circular Business & Circular Design

Recyclable Resource Recovery – Asia Model

Recycle Asia – all about sustainability.

Circular Tourism Standard – 1st Draft